Diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin, can not use insulin effectively, or in both cases. Insulin is a pancreatic hormone that helps cells absorb glucose from the blood and turn it into energy that the body needs. Although doctors do not use urine tests to diagnose patients with diabetes, urine can be used to measure the concentration of urine ketones in the patient’s body as a tool.
Type I & II diabetes
There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the body’s immune system that destroys insulin-releasing cells and leads to a lack of insulin secretion. This type of diabetes usually occurs in early childhood.
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can synthesize insulin, but can not use it properly, so it is also known as Insulin resistance. Since glucose remains in the blood because it cannot enter the cells, the patient’s blood sugar remains high. When the pancreas slowly fail to produce enough insulin, type 2 diabetes becomes type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is usually associated with overweight or sedentary habits.
Glucose left in the blood will produce ketones
When insulin secretion is abnormal and the cells cannot use glucose, the body begins to break down fat to produce the required energy. Glucose that is not used will remain in the blood and cause Ketone to be produced in the blood. The ketones in the blood are released into the urine, but when there are too many ketones in the blood, ketoacidosis occurs in the body and can cause coma and even death.
Urine and blood tests for diabetes patients
In general, doctors do not perform a urine test to diagnose a person with diabetes. Urine tests are used to monitor the concentration of urine ketone in the patient and whether glucose is present in the urine. If either of these two urine tests is abnormal, it may indicate an abnormal insulin secretion in the patient.
Patients with type 1 diabetes with blood glucose exceeding 300 mg/dL and Diabetic ketoacemia ketoacidosis. Patients with Type 1 diabetes can measure and monitor ketone concentration at home by using a home urine test kit. If the concentration of ketone in the body is moderate to high, it is a dangerous sign that diabetes is not well controlled and should seek professional medical assistance immediately.
In the past, doctors may also use urine to check the concentration of glucose in the patient’s urine to diagnose and monitor the condition, but this is not as common as blood tests. Now, most doctors use blood tests to observe diabetes, because blood can measure glucose concentration more accurately than urine tests.