Do you know what a Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation is? Simply put, it’s a cardiopulmonary auxiliary instrument called Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. ECMO, is commonly used in infants with respiratory problems. By using artificial cardiopulmonary equipment, patients can maintain their lives while waiting for suitable cardiopulmonary transplant. The function and risk of use of Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation are described below.

Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation can change fresh oxygen in vitrovitally

According to research from the internal science of Northern California Kaiser Permanente, the American health care organization, As early as the end of the 20th century, adjunctive treatment for patients with cardiopulmonary incapacity, most notably Extracorporeal circulation because it removes CO2 from Deoxygenated blood directly through the Oxygenator and adds new oxygen and pump the fresh Oxygenated blood back to the patient.

People Who Require a Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation

People who really need a Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation must first be diagnosed by a specialist to confirm that the cardiopulmonary does not function properly, such as lung infections and injuries, and heart attacks, etc. Here are the 3 groups and the unusual cases where a Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation may be used.

Infants

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, Conatal Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH), Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS), Pulmonary hypertension, severe pneumonia, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, cardiac surgery, Sepsis.

Children

Congenital Heart Disease, Heart Surgery, Pneumonia, Lung Inhalation Toxic Substances, Asthma , severe infections, trauma and other emergencies.

Adults

heart attack, pneumonia, pulmonary transplants, severe infections, trauma and other emergencies.

2 types of Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation instruments with different features

The Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation instrument is one of the most important devices in each ICU, and in general it can be divided into venous-Venous (VV) and Venous-Arterial, for short, VA.

The former is mainly aimed at patients with pulmonary problems. Oxygen can be equilibrium by casing on both sides of the vein, while patients with cardiopulmonary impairment are usually extracted from the femoral veins and then in the femoral strands. Arterial input, the body is more invasive.

Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation intubation with strict details may plus medication

Before intubation, an ultrasound and X-ray examination is performed by a specialist before the catheter is inserted in the veins and arteries, such as the neck, chest, ratchet or leg. In addition, there are ventilators that connect from the patient’s mouth or nose to the trachea to facilitate discharge of secretions.

To limit movement and help fall asleep, a sedative or painkillers may be provided. Other medications include heparin to prevent blood clots, blood supplements. Diuretic helps to discharge liquids, electrolyte maintains the proportion of glycemic salt in the body, and antibiotics to avoid infection.

Because the membrane temporarily replaces cardiopulmonary function, patients need to rely on a display to ensure that heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and oxygen levels are at normal levels, all of which are controlled by a perfusionist and healthcare professionals perform daily examinations to include nutritional supplements and avoid dangerous cases where the catheters become entangled by the patient’s movement.

Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation at risk of bleeding is not suitable for long-term use

Although the Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation can significantly reduce the pressure in the lungs, the risk is not enough to be restated, including bleeding from other parts of the body, insufficient blood from the kidneys and acute renal failure, not enough brain blood to cause Stroke, blood transfusions cause bacterial infections, blocking blood flow and causing cell death, loike membrane device failure, etc.

American Thoracic Society reminds that the Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation is only used to help patients maintain life, it does not treat wounds and disease. Therefore, finding the right organ donor, or using other treatments, is the key. Some people don’t need it for just a few hours, others take days or weeks, and the longer the time, the greater the risk.

However, as the disease recovers, the doctor will gradually reduce the volume of the Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation to judge the patient’s condition, until it is confirmed that the cardiopulmonary function is fully restored, the catheter is removed, and then observe the catheter for a few days. ,No problem can be discharged。

For More COVID-19 Information, Please Click Here
COVID-19 Real Time Data