Hepatoblastoma is a rare cancer that occurs in the liver and is most common in infants to children around 3 years of age. The liver is one of the largest organs of the body and consists of the left and right lobe. The main functions include filtration and storage of blood. Although cancer cells from hepatoblastoma may also transfer to other parts of the body, this is rare.

What are the causes of hepatoblastoma

Although the exact causes of liver cancer are unknown, some genetic conditions may increase the risk of hepatoblastoma, such as Beckwith- Wiedemann syndrome, Wilson disease, Porphyria cutanea tarda, PCT, and Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), etc. Other genetic problems associated with liver cancer include severe congenital metabolic problems such as Tyrosinemia, Glycogen storage diseases and alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD).

Children who are young and exposed to Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C infection or newborn biliary atresia) also has a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Some hepatocytomas replace tumor inhibitor genes, which explains why cells grow uncontrolled.

What are the symptoms of hepatoblastoma?

The following are the most common symptoms of hepatoblastoma. However, each child may show different symptoms, depending on the size of the tumor, the time in the body, and the location of the metastasis. Symptoms may be:

There are large lumps or swollen abdomen.
Weight loss, appetite becomes worse.
Boys early adolescence.
Abdominal pain.
Nausea or vomiting.
Jaundice, yellowing eyes or skin
Fever.
Itchy skin.
The abdomen veins dilate, visible from the skin.
Symptoms of hepatoblastoma may also be consistent with other conditions, so consult a doctor to confirm the condition.

How to diagnose hepatoblastoma

In addition to a complete history of disease and health examination, the steps to diagnose hepatoblastoma may include:

biopsy

Tumor samples are taken and tested under a microscope.

Complete blood count (CBC)

Measure different blood cell sizes, quantities, and maturity with a specific volume of blood.

Blood tests

may include biochemical tests, thrombosis tests, evaluation of liver and kidney function, and genetic tests.

Computed tomography scan (CT, CAT)

is an imaging diagnostic method that combines X-ray and computer technology to create horizontal and longitudinal images of the human body. Computed tomography can show the Details, including bones, muscles, fat and organs. Computed tomography can show more detail than normal X-rays.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

imaging with large magnetic forces, radio waves and computers that provide Details of organs and structures.

X-ray

a diagnostic test that imaged invisible electromagnetic energy beams to see tissues, bones, organs in the body.

Ultrasound

uses high-frequency sound waves and computers to present images of blood vessels, tissues and organs. Ultrasound can be used to watch the function of internal organs and assess the direction of blood flow through different blood vessels.

Alpha-fetoprotein

The concentration of AFP in blood can be used to diagnose liver cancer and track the response to treatment.

What are the types of hepatoblastoma?

The cancer stage is the way to assess the extent of cancer metastasis. The staging of hepatoblastoma can be diagnosed with different symptoms. Consult a physician for staging related questions. One of the ways to determine the stage of hepatoblastoma is as follows:

Phase 1: The tumor is only in the liver and can be completely removed by surgery.

Stage 2: The tumor has been removed through surgery, but a small number of cancer cells remain in the liver.

Stage 3: The tumor is completely removed, but cancer cells can be found in adjacent lymph nodes.

Phase IV: The tumor has metastasis to other parts.

Recurrence: the disease continues to occur after treatment, which may occur again in the liver and may occur in other parts of the body.

How to treat hepatoblastoma

Treatment of hepatoblastoma varies according to the following factors:

The age, overall health and history of the child.
The extent of the disease.
Children’s tolerance to specific medications, treatments and treatments.
Expect for the course of the disease.
Your comments and preferences.
In general, the ultimate goal of treating hepatoblastoma is to remove the tumor as much as possible while maintaining liver function. Liver tissue can be regenerate after removal. Other treatments may include the following:

Surgery (removal of tumors and some or all of the liver).
Chemotherapy.
Liver transplantation.
Radiation therapy.
Alcoholic injection (Percutogeneethanol injection).
Watchful waiting.
Assessment of the rehabilitation of children

A large part of the post-healing situation is affected by the following factors:

The duration of the disease.
The size and location of the tumor.
Whether to transfer.
Tumor Response to Treatment
age and overall health of the child.
Children’s tolerance to specific medications, treatments and treatments.