Migraine is a severe pain that usually affects only one side of the head which is usually accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and can last for hours to days. It may affect your ability to work and daily activities. With the right treatment, home therapy and lifestyle change, you can control migraine headaches effectively.

How common is migraine?

Anyone may have migraine headaches, but most cases range from 10 to 45 years old. By reducing risk factors and irritation, you can significantly reduce the incidence of migraine. Please consult physician for more information.

Symptoms of migraine

In most cases, migraine symptoms can last from hours to days and can be divided into four stages: precursor symptoms, aura symptoms, pain symptoms, later symptoms.

Among the precursor symptoms, there may be signs one or two days before the onset, such as:

Depressed mood, such as melancholy.
Constipation.
Stiff neck.
Yawning more than usual.
Being irritated.
Sluggish movement
Change in appetite,
Nausea.
This is followed by a symptom, which may occur before or during the onset of migraine. It is a symptom of the nervous system that may appear slowly within a few minutes and then persist for 20-60 minutes; the following symptoms may occur:

Visually impaired, such as photophobia.
Blindness.
Sprain on the arm or leg.
Language disorders (Aphasia, aphasia).

After the onset of migraine, the pain slowly intensifies for 4 to 72 hours. During this period, the following conditions may occur:

Pain on both sides or one side of the head
Pulsating headache or pumping pain
Photophobia (Phonosensitivity Light Sensitive)
Fear of Noisy (Phonosensitivity Sound Sensitive)
Vomiting
Blurred sight
Dizziness or fainting
After the end of the pain symptoms, the person might ay be very tired and may have a slight feeling of pressure. The symptoms of migraine may be more than these. If you have any concerns, consult a physician.

When should I see a doctor for migraine?

Consult your doctor immediately if:

Migraine patients older than 50 years of age.
Migraine worsens.
The medication you take does not improve migraine.
A headache occurs after head surgery.
Headaches are accompanied by fever, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, double vision, weakness, etc.
Whenever you’re coughing, or moving, the headache becomes more severe.

Causes of migraine

The exact cause of migraine is unknown, but it is related to certain genes and environmental factors, such as:

Trigeminal nerve, the main transmission path of pain, signal changes.
Brain chemical imbalance, such as serotonin, which helps the nervous system to deal with pain and mood.
Hormonal changes in women: usually during menstruation, pregnancy, menopause, causing migraine.
Abnormal meals, starving yourself, and certain foods can cause migraine headaches, such as cheese, salty foods, processed foods, etc.
Food additives also cause migraines, such as Monosodium glutamate, MSG, Aspartame, a sweetener.
Drinking alcoholic beverages, high caffeine beverages, may also cause migraine.
Stress
Weather changes.
Changes in sleep habits.
Some medications may also cause migraine pain, such as Oral contraceptives, Hormone replacement therapy drugs.

Risk factors for migraine

The following factors may increase the risk of migraine:

Family history: Up to 90% of migraine patients have migraine headaches in their families.
Hormonal changes: may occur before and after menstruation, during pregnancy and menstruation.
Women: Women are 3 times more likely to have migraine than men.
Diagnosis and treatment of migraine
The following information is not a medical diagnosis, be sure to consult your doctor for more information.

How to diagnose migraine?

The physician may do the following tests:

Medical examination, neurological examination.
Blood test.
Computerized Tomography Scan (CT Scan)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Spinal Tap or Lumbar Puncture

How to treat migraine?

Migraine can not be cured yet, but some treatments can alleviate symptoms, such as:

In case of migraine attacks, painkillers can be taken. It is better to take it immediately as soon as you have a headache.
Available painkillers include: Aspirin, Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Triptans like Sumatriptan, Rizatriptan, Almotriptan, and Pain Relief. These drugs can shrink blood vessels and block the sensation of pain to the brain.
Ergots drugs, such as Ergotamine with caffeine, Ergotamine, Dihydroergotamine. These drugs are effective in patients with migraine for more than 48 hours.
Opioid Medications, containing narcotics, such as Codeine, may also be used; however, because may be addictive, so it must only be used when other drugs are ineffective and last.
For migraine attacks more than 4 times a month, each lasting more than 12 hours, it is best to use prophylactic medications to reduce the frequency, severity, and duration of migraine.

Life adjustment for migraine with home remedies

The following lifestyle adjustments and home remedies can help you fight migraine:

Try to relax your muscles and relax your migraine symptoms.
Relaxation exercises, including progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, yoga, etc.
Sleep enough, but don’t sleep too much. Get enough sleep every night, it’s best to get up and sleep at a fixed time.
Relaxing. When migraine attacks, rest in a quiet environment as much as possible, wrap some ice cubes with a cloth and put on the neck, this can gently ease the headache.
Record daily pain, even after a visit to a doctor. By doing so, it is better to understand what causes pain and what treatments are more effective.

If you have any other concerns, consult your doctor for more information.

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