Some risk factors cannot be changed, some can be improved by changing lifestyles. However, risk factors do not necessarily mean liver cancer, which means that the risk of developing liver cancer is higher. The following is a further description of the risk factors for liver cancer:

Gender and age

The risk of liver cancer is higher in men and more common than in women. It is about 1 in 81 men, 1 in 196 women, 1 in 1 patient, and lifestyle also affects These data. In addition, a type of liver cancer called Fibrolamellar is more common among women, and the risk of liver cancer increases with age.

Chronic hepatitis

Long-term infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common risk of liver cancer, as these viruses are common around the world, making liver cancer in many places are the most common cancers.

HBV is the most common cause of liver cancer, especially in Asia and developing countries. People infected with HBV and HCV are at high risk of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer later.

HBV and HCV can be spread between people through the sharing of contaminated needles (e.g. drug use or blood transfusions), unpreventive sex, childbirth, etc. When infected with HBV, symptoms such as a cold, yellowing eyes and skin may occur. This yellowing symptom is a disease called Jaundice. While most people can recover from HBV infection after some time, some people with chronic infections are at risk of liver cancer. Children and infants with weak immune systems are also more likely to develop liver cancer if infected.

HCV causes fewer symptoms than HBV, but does not mean that it is not serious. People infected with HCV can cause chronic infection, which is more likely to lead to liver damage and even to cancer.

Other types of hepatitis viruses, such as hepatitis A and hepatitis E, can also damage the health of the liver. Fortunately, people infected with these viruses do not cause chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis and therefore do not increase the risk of liver cancer.

Cirrhosis of the liver

Cirrhosis is a disease associated with liver cancer, and most patients with liver cancer have developed to some degree of cirrhosis, liver damage in patients with cirrhosis and develop into scar tissue in the liver, thus increasing Risk of liver cancer.

There are many causes of cirrhosis, but the most common causes are alcoholism, or chronic HBV and HCV infections. Some types of autoimmune diseases, such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), also affect the liver and cause cirrhosis. When you have PBC, the body’s immune system attacks the bile catheter of the liver. Infringement of the bile catheter can lead to cirrhosis, and advanced PBC has a higher risk of liver cancer.


Alcoholism is the main cause of cirrhosis, which in turn is associated with increased risk of liver cancer. The risk is even higher in the case of heavy drinkers (at least 6 times a day).


Overweight people produce fatty liver tissue, which in turn leads to cirrhosis of the liver. People who drink less or do not drink alcohol have a liver disease called non-alcoholic fatty liver, which is common in obese people. This disease, also known as NASH (Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis non-alcoholic fatty liver) may develop into cirrhosis of the liver.

Type 2 diabetes

People with Type 2 diabetes are mostly overweight or obese, as mentioned earlier, causing liver problems. This risk is even higher than people with other risk factors such as severe alcoholism or chronic hepatitis virus infection. Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of liver cancer, often in conjunction with other risk factors such as severe alcohol use and/or chronic viral hepatitis.

Metabolic Syndrome

Heredity also affects the risk of liver cancer. Some metabolic diseases are hereditary, such as Hemochromatosis, or hemochromatosis, which can lead to the body from food , so that iron is deposited in the body, including in the liver. If a certain amount is reached, the liver turns to cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Other diseases that increase the risk of liver cancer, but less common include:

Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency
Violet disease (Porphyria cutanea tarda)
Glycogen storage diseases
Wilson disease


Aflatoxins is a substance that can cause liver cancer. It is mainly made from fungi in wheat, soybeans, peanuts, corn and rice. These fungi will infect the food you eat.

Warm climates like tropical countries are better suited to the growth of aflatoxin, but it also grows around the world. In developed countries, these products are often tested for aflatoxin.

Long-term exposure to these substances is also a major risk factor for liver cancer, with hepatitis B or C infection at a higher risk.

Vinyl Chloride and Thorium Dioxide (Image Development Agent)

Vinyl chloride is a chemical used in the manufacture of plastics, while Thorium dioxide is an X-ray injected into the human body Testing of chemicals. Prolonged exposure to these chemicals increases the risk of Angiosarcoma in the liver and Cholangiocarcinoma and Hepatocellular cancer, but to a lesser extent.

The current use of vinyl chloride and thorium dioxide has been restricted and preventive measures, where thorium dioxide is no longer used, and exposure to vinyl chloride is strictly restricted and regulated.

assimilated steroids

Anabolic steroids are an illegal substance commonly used by athletes to increase muscle and strength. If used over time, it may slightly increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, similar to Cortisone, such as hydrocortisone, Prednisone and Dexamethasone, do not have the same risk.


Arsenic contaminated well water increases the risk of certain types of liver cancer over a long period of time, which is more common in some East Asia.

Parasitic infection

Schistosomiasis can also cause liver damage and may cause liver cancer. Parasitic infections often occur in regions such as Asia, Africa and South America.


Smoking can harm health in many ways and increase the risk of liver cancer. Quitting smoking can reduce this risk, but if hepatosis has accumulated in the liver, the risk of liver cancer will still be higher than those who never smoke. In the UK, 23 percent of liver cancer patients are related to smoking.