Urinalysis, commonly known as urine testing, is a kind of laboratory testing for urine samples. Physical dysfunction, or illness, can affect circulatory organs such as lungs, kidneys, urinary tract, bladder and skin, and react to excretory functions such as urination and perspiration. Any or more organs or functional abnormalities can affect the color, concentration, turbidity, taste, composition, etc., so urine tests can help your doctor diagnose your health better.

The urine test for a health check is different from a urine test for a drug screening or pregnancy test, although these tests take urine samples. For example, the concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin is mainly measured during pregnancy tests, while testing is only for specific drugs or metabolites of drugs.

Why do you need a urine test?

Your doctor usually asks you for a urine test for several reasons:

The urine test may be part of a general health check, and the doctor may check for Diabetes, kidney, liver, etc.
In the event of abdominal pain, back pain, frequent urination, difficulty or pain, hematuria, or other urinary problems, your doctor may request a urine test to diagnose the condition.
If you have had kidney disease or urinary related disease, your doctor may ask you to have regular urine tests to monitor the development and effectiveness of your treatment.

Before urine test – How to collect sample for Urinalysis

If you have Urinary tract infection (UTI), the urine sampling process may be uncomfortable.
Wash hands before and after sampling.
Follow the instructions carefully when sampling to avoid contamination of urine samples.
You can drink 1 to 2 cups of water before urine test to produce enough urine as a sample. Be aware, however, that excessive drinking water can lead to inaccurate test results.
Usually you don’t need to change your diet before your urine, and if your doctor does not restrict your diet, you can drink a little juice or milk as well as water on the test day.
Let your doctor know what medications or nutritional supplements you are taking and what you have taken in recent days, as some ingredients may affect your results, including:
Anthraquinone laxatives
Vitamin C Supplements

The process of urine testing (Urinalysis)

Remember to wash your hands after urine collection.
The urine test may be performed at a physician’s clinic, hospital or specialist laboratory.
You will get a collection cup or small jar that allows you to bring to the toilet to collect your urine.
To prevent the sample from contaminated with bacteria on the penis or vagina, use a sterilized tissue to clean the urethra or around the vulva before urination.
When collecting urine, remove some of the urine before releasing the remaining urine in the collection cup.
Avoid touching the inner edge and mouth of the cup while urinating, so that bacteria can not infect the urine sample.
Cover the collection cup or small jar filled with urine samples and place it in the specified position.

In some special cases, the doctor may request the use of a catheter, taking the urine from the bladder directly as a sample. The process of insertion of the catheter may be uncomfortable, and if you reject the use of the catheter, ask your doctor if it is possible to use other methods.

Methods of urine analysis

Analytical methods may include one or more of the following, and if you have any questions, consult a physician or an examiner:


The doctor or examiner will place a drop of urine on the slide and place it under the microscope to observe the following points:

Whether there is bacterial or yeast infection
Abnormal erythrocytes or leukocytes, if so, signs of kidney disease, bladder cancer, or blood disease .
Mineral crystalline deposition, if any, may be kidney stones.
The presence of epithelial cells, if any, may be a sign of cancer.

Test Strips

The physician or examiner inserts the reagent into the urine sample and interprets the abnormalities present in the urine according to color changes. Such as:
Protein, Sediment or sediment.
Bilirubin (the main metabolic product of erythrohemoglobin). Blood, there is a phenomenon of internal bleeding in the body.
pH or acidity changes, high pH may be a problem with the urinary tract or kidney.
Possible sign of diabetes.
Crystallized particles, and some may indicate that you may be dehydrated and need to replenish moisture.


Your doctor may observe abnormal characterization of your urine sample by looking at the naked eye, or by sniffing, such as:

There is a smell.
If the urine is cloudy, the body is infected.
The urine is red or brown, which may indicate blood (hematuria) in the urine.

Urinalysis – Process of Analysing

If your urine test results are abnormal and you have had kidney, urinary, or other related diseases, your doctor may request further examination or other urine analysis.

If your urine test results are abnormal, but there are no special symptoms, and your doctor may not ask for more tests, but only ask for your own attention.

Proteinuria is not necessarily a threat to health. Because urine usually contains trace proteins, it is normal, only occasional spikes occur, not a sign of any serious disease, possible causes include cold weather or overheating of body temperature, high fever, physical and psychological stress, emotional problems, or intense exercise. However, if the urine protein index is abnormally high, it may be caused by a disease that causes kidney problems. Physicians may track the examination to confirm the abnormalities, such as:
Heart disease
Sickle cell anemia
Rheumatoid arthritis

Definitions of values may vary depending on laboratories and hospitals. Consult your doctor if you have any concerns.

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